1. Palca J. Putting AIDS research in perspective. Science
1991; 251: 1172. Thompson D. The AIDS political machine. Time 22 January 1990:
2. For excellent discussions of this hermeneutics of illness,
see Sontag S. Illness as Metaphor. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux 1978;
and also Sontag S. AIDS and Its Metaphors. New York: Farrar, Strauss &
3. Centers for Disease Control. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report.
Atlanta, February 1993.
4. National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research.
Australian HIV Surveillance Report 1993; 9(1): 1-32.
5. Bundesgesundheitsamt. AIDS-Fälle und HIV-Infektionen in
der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Nr. 1/1993: 43-47.
6. Chapman S. Dogma disputed: potential endemic heterosexual
transmission of human immunodeficiency virus in Australia. Australian Journal
of Public Health 1992; 16(1): 128-41. US National Research Council. Social
Impact of AIDS. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press 1993. Fumento M. The
Myth of Heterosexual AIDS. New York: Basic Books 1989. Root-Bernstein RS.
Rethinking AIDS: The Tragic Cost of Premature Consensus. New York: The Free
7. Schüklenk U. HIV-related phraseology. Australian Journal
of Public Health 1992; 16(3): 329-30.
8. Greenberg DF, Bystryn MH. Christian Intolerance of
Homosexuality. American Journal of Sociology 1982/3; 88(3): 515-48.
9. The best refutation of all logical and moral arguments for
the existence of 'God' has been written by Russell B. Why I am not a
Christian, and other essays on religion and related subjects. London: Allen
and Unwin 1967. It makes superb reading even for the philosophically not so
well versed reader. A quite entertaining collection of biblical nonsense has
been provided by Glass M. The Bible - Humbug and Horror. Chippendale
(Australia): Rationalist Association of Australia 1983.
10. Boswell J. Christianity, Social Tolerance, and
Homosexuality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1980: 310.
11. It is clear, certainly, that the concern here in
Leviticus is not to proscribe female sexual contact with men although many,
many specific such prescriptions are contained in this document but rather
that the presumed readership of the book is exclusively male. The Christian
treatment of female homosexuality has add a complex history, quite distinct
from that of male homosexuality; but overall, by the twentieth century, both
are generally treated as identical categories of sinfulness.
12. This ten percent is, of course, the figure somewhat
fancifully drawn from the mass of data presented in Kinsey, AC, WB Pomeroy,
and CE Martin, Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, Philadelphia: WB Saunders,
1948. We mention this popular number not firmly to state the exact extent of
the practice of homosexuality, but simply to indicate the substantial minority
of human sexual behavior which is homosexual.
13. For a philosophical comment on these concepts see Mohr
RD. Homosexuality. In: Becker LC, et al (Hgb). Encyclopedia of Ethics. New
York: Garland 1992; Vol. 1: 552-4.
14. ROM 1:26 For this cause God gave them up unto vile
affections: for even their women did change the natural use into that which
is against nature:
ROM 1:27 And likewise also the men, leaving the natural use of the woman,
burned in their lust one toward another; men with men working that which is
unseemly, and receiving in themselves that recompense of their error which was
15. CO1 6:9 Know ye not that the unrighteous shall not
inherit the kingdom of God? Be not deceived: neither fornicators, nor
idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor abusers of themselves with
CO1 6:10 Nor thieves, nor covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor
extortioners, shall inherit the kingdom of God.
TI1 1:10 For whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with mankind, for
men-stealers, for liars, for perjured persons, and if there be any other thing
that is contrary to sound doctrine;
16. Verlautbarungen des Apostolischen Stuhls 72. Schreiben
der Kongregation fü die Glaubenslehre an die Bischöfe der Katholischen Kirche
über die Seelsorge für homosexuelle Personen. Bonn: Sekretariat der Deutschen
Bischofskonferenz 30 Oktober 1986.
17. See, e.g. McNeill J. The Church and the Homosexual.
Boston: Beacon Press 1988.
18. Anonymous. Interview with John McNeill. Chiron Rising
19. United Press International dispatch. Gay Episcopal
Priest Dead of AIDS-Related Disease. 27 December 1992.
20. Johannes Paul II. Ansprache an die Teilnehmer des IV.
Internationalen AIDS-Kongresses im Vatikan. Rom 15 November 1989.
21. Boswell J. Op.cit.
22. Harvey JF. Homosexuality. In: Catholic University of
America. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. VII. New York: McGraw-Hill 1967: 116-
23. Bancroft J. Homosexuality and the medical profession.
Journal of Medical Ethics 1975; 1: 176-80.
24. Piegsa J. AIDS - Krankheit und Herausforderung. In:
Katholische Sozialwissenschaftliche Zentralstelle M”nchengladbach (Hgb).
Kirche und Gesellschaft. K”ln: J.P. Bachem Verlag 1987.
25. For a discussion of the evaluation of homosexuality in
the Psychiatric field, see Schüklenk U. Male Homosexuality. Medical Journal of
Australia 1992; 157: 213-4.
26. Kowalewski MR. Religious Constructions of the AIDS
Crisis. Sociological Analysis 1990; 51(1): 91-6.
27. Jakobi PL. Medical Science, Christian Fundamentalism,
and the Etiology of AIDS. AIDS Public Policy Journal 1990; 5(2): 89-93.
28. Fumento M. OP.CIT.
29. Anonymous. Pishops say condom use could help spread
AIDS. The Independent (UK) 14 January 1987.
30. For example, the WHO Semi-Annual Statistics Report on
AIDS, of January 1993 reports a total of 241 AIDS cases in Ireland through
December 30, 1991. This is a cumulative number of cases; the yearly diagnoses
have never exceeded 50. There is no evidence that a higher percentage of even
these small number of cases in Ireland are heterosexually transmitted than
they are in the USA.
31. Clements RD. AIDS, gays and God's judgement.
Evangelicals Now 1987; 1(1): 1-2.
32. Napier B. AIDS Just another disease? Evangelical Times
33. Petrie J. Churches urges biblica restraint to beat AIDS.
The Daily Telegraph (UK) 08 December 1986.
34. Anonymous. News in Brief: Utah. Advocate 17 November
35. Hume B. AIDS: time for a moral renaissance. The Times
(UK) 07 January 1987.
36. Presseamt des Erzbistums Köln. AIDS: Vier Aussagen des
Erzbischofs von Köln, Kardinal Joseph H”ffner. K”ln: Erzbistum K”ln 1987.
37. Centers for Disease Control. Sexual behavior among high
school students. JAMA 1992; 267: 628. Rolfs RT et al. Epidemiology of primary
and secondary syphilis in the US. JAMA 1990; 264: 1432-7.
38. Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung. Starting
points for AIDS education in the eastern and western länder of the FRG. Köln
39. Singleton R. Italian AIDS TV adverts outrage the
Vatican. The Universe (UK) 31 July 1988.
40. Pressemitteilung. Erklärung des Ständigen Rates der
Deutschen Bischofskonferenz zur 'AIDS-Anzeigenkampagne'. Bonn: Pressestelle
der Deutschen Bischofskonferenz 27 January 1987.
41. Johannes Paul II. Op.cit. [emphasis added].
42. Navarro M. Ethics of Giving Advise Trouble Catholic
Hospitals. New York Times 01 March 1993.
43. Pleming S. Manila Slams Cardinal Sin for Attack on
Condoms. Nachrichtenagentur Reuters 05 March 1993. Clary M. Philippines
AIDS. Narichtenagentur Associated Press 27 January 1993.
44. Cowell A. Pope in Uganda, Urges Chastity as AIDS
Defense. New York Times 08 February 1993: A5.
45. Ragland J et al. Critics See Values as Casualty of AIDS
Battle Plan. Washington Post 14 May 1992: B1.
46. Austin D, et al. Some Determinants of Fear about AIDS
among Australian College Students. Psychological Reports 1989; 64: 1239-44.
47. Conner G, et al. AIDS Knowledge and Homophobia among
French and American University Students. Psychological Reports 1990; 67: 1147-
48. Johnson SD. Factors Related to Intolerance of AIDS
Victims. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 1987; 26(1): 105-10.
49. Franks K, et al. Exploration of Death Anxiety as a
Function of Religious Variables in Gay Men with and without AIDS. Omega:
Journal of Death and Dying 1990/1; 22(1): 43-50.
51. Thompson W. Harlem Week of Prayer. People with AIDS
Coalition [New York City] Newsline 1992; 83: 27.
52. Navarro M. Op.cit.
53. Navarro M. Op.cit.
54. See PWAC. Resources Directory. People with AIDS [New
York City] Coalition Newsline 1993; 85: 11 (Resource Directory Issue #85).
55. Kowalewski MR. Op.cit.
56. Palmer SJ. AIDS as Metaphor A study of seven religious
groups. Society 1989; 26 (Jan/Feb): 44-50.
57. Palmer SJ. Op.cit.
58. Wallack JJ. AIDS Anxiety Among Health Care
Professionals. Hospital and Community Medicine 1989; 40(5): 507-10.
60. Kilzer L. The AIDS Mythology. Star Tribune (Minneapolis)
05 July 1992: A1.
61. Thompson D. Op.cit.
62. Palca J. Op.cit.
63. San Francisco Examiner, Wednesday October 20, 1993, A-
65. Navarro M. Op.cit.
66. Briggs D. As AIDS Casts Shadow of Death, More Churches
Find Compassion. Los Angeles Times 28 March 1993: A1.